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Complete Guide to Cockatiel Color Mutations
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  • 15 Chapters
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Premiere Book Review
by Mr. Thomas C. Marshall
Former President,
American Federation of Aviculture, Inc.
The Complete Guide   to  
Volume 1
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with full descriptions, nomenclature and
history of the primary mutations - all
beautifully illustrated with
colorful photos of
these stunning mutations.

Read FREE chapter excerpts highlighted in
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"Fortunately, Linda Rubin has made available for
The Complete Guide to Cockatiel Color
reminiscent of earlier contributions,
concerning color mutations of parrots, made by
British author George Smith in chapters of his
Lovebirds and Related Parrots and
Encyclopedia of Cockatiels.
However, Linda has taken the subject of
mutations, in terms of color pigmentation to a
greater depth and length  than has previously
been found in anything offered the aviculturist.
Discussions of rare color mutations and her
references to show standards, make this booklet a
one of a kind phenomena for aviculturists with a
penchant for the study genetics."              
Read Chapter excerpts by visiting links at the top of this page.
Another interesting but less popular double mutation is the Lutino Cinnamon. The Lutino
Cinnamon is a combination of two sex-linked colors (i.e. Lutino and Cinnamon) appearing
together, although in most instances the Lutino will mask the Cinnamon coloration.
Therefore, it is possible to possess a so-called "Lutino" which, in actuality, could be the
double mutation Lutino Cinnamon. However, chances would be very slim on the latter,
unless you knew the full pedigree.

In contrast, there are some Lutino Cinnamon specimens which do exhibit varying amounts
of tan to brown hues on the wings, tail and other areas including the undersides and back. I
have heard reports of some birds ranging from a slight wash to a much deeper coloration.
This is extremely interesting as it seems to illustrate a contradiction in the way in which we
perceive the Lutino mutation to be inherited. Therefore, it appears it is not always an
absolute to assume the ino factor (e.g. Lutino) will always successfully mask the Cinnamon
mutation in the combined form. Here then, is where theory parts company from actual

I cannot resist the temptation at this time to point to a parallel comparison of the color
pigmentation in the Lutino. As mentioned in an earlier section of this series, there are some
breeders working with lavendar wings. The lavendar wing is the unofficial label given to
those Lutinos which do not seem to successfully mask all the grey melanin pigment in the
plumage. As some of the melanin is expressed, or visible, the bird has a greyish or lavendar
cast to its wings, tail and frequently other areas. This would be considered a fault on the
showbench, much in the same manner that a lutino budgerigar  sporting a greenish cast or
an albino budgerigar sporting a bluish cast would be faulted. It is my opinion that eventually
these lavendar wings, if selectively bred, would only produce Normal Greys as the intensity
of melanin pigmentation increases. Yet, this is only theory and to the best of my knowledge
has not yet been proven. One could also take the opposite stand and claim that the ino factor
of the Lutino has weakened, and so cannot successfully mask the grey melanin hidden

Looking back at the Lutino Cinnamon, could we also ask the same questions? If selectively
bred for the brown shades would we ultimately produce only Cinnamons again? Or, if the
ino factor of the Lutino is being weakened and allowing for such specimens as the lavendar
wing where grey pigmentation is expressed, do we face the same problem with the Lutino
Cinnamon where the ino factor also cannot successfully mask the Cinnamon color? (More
to the point, do we view this as a problem or a step in another direction)? To complicate the
picture further, if we work with Lutinos from lavendar wing lines for our Lutino Cinnamons,
will the grey melanin pigment of the lavendadar wing become dominant over any cinnamon
or tan colors which would have been expressed? ... One certainly could speculate even
further on ... would the new true Albino be altered when bred to other colors if the ino factor
(i.e. Lutino or Albino) is affected? Or, is this a matter of proper selective breeding against
possible show
faults such as eliminating the darker pigments and not allowing them to show through?  ...
Furthermore, it would be impossible to recognize a Lutino Cinnamon if the Lutino did
successfully mask the Cinnamon color. Show classifications are usually based on
phenotype (visual characteristics) not genotype (the full pedigree of all characteristinc). At
this time, we are not certain of the nature of many colors or how they'll interest in the
hierarchy of dominance with other colors or factors ... (
Continued) ...
Excerpt to Color Pigmentation, part V
Lutino Cinnamon
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Complete Guide Title Page & Book Review                   Forward                  Excerpt to Color Pigmentation, part V                 Excerpt to Color Pigmentation, part VIII